Archive for February, 2014

Napoleon at Home.

February 21, 2014

In line with my blogs about both the fictional and historical figures in my novels I come to the man at the centre of all events in Europe in that age—Napoleon I, Emperor of France. But how do I let him in, that wily schemer, without him taking over the whole show? Well, I fall back on the novel’s identity as Regency romance for this posting—this will be about Napoleon’s loves.

In 1795, The young General Napoleon met the fashionable widow Rose de Beauharnaise through the actions of her young son Eugene. Here is the report given in the Memoirs written by Bourrienne, a school friend of Napoleon’s who became his confidential secretary for five years during the Consulate and into the Empire.

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Pic 1 Josephine de Beauharnaise

–[“Eugène was not more than fourteen years of age when he ventured

   to introduce himself to General Bonaparte, for the purpose of
   soliciting his father's sword, of which he understood the General
   had become possessed. The countenance, air, and frank manner of
   Eugène pleased Bonaparte, and he immediately granted him the 
   boon he sought. As soon as the sword was placed in the boy's hands
   he burst into tears, and kissed it. This feeling of affection for his
   father's memory, and the natural manner in which it was evinced,
   increased the interest of Bonaparte in his young visitor. Madame de
   Beauharnais, on learning the kind reception which the General had
   given her son, thought it her duty to call and thank him. Bonaparte
   was much pleased with Josephine on this first interview, and he
   returned her visit. The acquaintance thus commenced speedily led to
   their marriage."--Constant]


Napoleon_I_of_France_by_Andrea_AppianiPic 2 The Young Emperor

Alexandre de Beauharnaise, Josėphine's first husband had been 
Guillotined during the “Terror” and she had been imprisoned and 
had barely escaped the same fate. She and Napoleon became lovers,
 when she switched from the name Rose to please him, and 
they were married within a year. She was six years his senior.  

Bourrienne reports:-

[Madame de Rémusat, who, to paraphrase Thiers’ saying on

   Bourrienne himself, is a trustworthy witness, for if she received
   benefits from Napoleon they did not weigh on her, says, "However,
   Napoleon had some affection for his first wife; and, in fact, if he
   has at any time been touched, no doubt it has been only for her and
   by her" (tome i. p. 113). "Bonaparte was young when he first knew
   Madame de Beauharnais. In the circle where he met her she had a
   great superiority by the name she bore and by the extreme elegance
   of her manners. . . . In marrying Madame de Beauharnais,
   Bonaparte believed he was allying himself to a very grand lady; thus
   this was one more conquest" (p. 114). But in speaking of
   Josephine's complaints to Napoleon of his love affairs, Madame de
   Rémusat says, "Her husband sometimes answered by violences, the
   excesses of which I do not dare to detail, until the moment when,
   his new fancy having suddenly passed, he felt his tenderness for his
   wife again renewed. Then he was touched by her sufferings, replaced
   his insults by caresses which were hardly more measured than his
   violences and, as she was gentle and untenacious, she fell back into
   her feeling of security"

Readers who know both of these S&S novels, this last observation 
may remind you of someone. Here is Napoleon writing a letter to his 
wife after the battle at Arcona.

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Pic 3 Josephine as Queen of Italy

VERONA, the 29th, noon.

   At length, my adored Josephine, I live again. Death is no longer
   before me, and glory and honour are still in my breast. The enemy
   is beaten at Arcola. To-morrow we will repair the blunder of
   Vaubois, who abandoned Rivoli. In eight days Mantua will be ours,
   and then thy husband will fold thee in his arms, and give thee a
   thousand proofs of his ardent affection. I shall proceed to Milan
   as soon as I can: I am a little fatigued. I have received letters
   from Eugène and Hortense. I am delighted with the children. I will
   send you their letters as soon as I am joined by my household, which
   is now somewhat dispersed.

   We have made five thousand prisoners, and killed at least six
   thousand of the enemy. Adieu, my adorable Josephine. Think of me
   often. When you cease to love your Achilles, when your heart grows
   cool towards him, you wilt be very cruel, very unjust. But I am
   sure you will always continue my faithful mistress, as I shall ever
   remain your fond lover ('tendre amie'). Death alone can break the
   union which sympathy, love, and sentiment have formed. Let me have
   news of your health. A thousand and a thousand kisses.

424px-1801_Antoine-Jean_Gros_-_Bonaparte_on_the_Bridge_at_Arcole
Pic 4 Napoleon on the Bridge at Arcola.

In this very abbreviated account, I have to go directly to the ending, 
but on the way that both had lovers during their marriage, and that it
was often a stormy passage. 

This next comes from Wikipedia.

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Pic 5 Empress Josephine

When, after a few years, it became clear she could not have a child, Napoléon while he still loved Joséphine, began to think very seriously about the possibility of divorce. The final die was cast when Joséphine’s grandson Napoleon Charles Bonaparte who had been declared Napoléon’s heir, died of croup in 1807. Napoleon began to create lists of eligible princesses. At dinner on November 30, 1809, he let Joséphine know that — in the interest of France — he must find a wife who could produce an heir. From the next room, Napoléon’s secretary heard the screams.[citation needed]

Joséphine agreed to the divorce so the Emperor could remarry in the hope of having an heir. The divorce ceremony took place on January 10,1810 and was a grand but solemn social occasion, and each read a statement of devotion to the other.[citation needed]

On March 11, Napoléon married Marie-Louise of Austria by proxy; the formal ceremony took place at the Louvre in April. Napoléon once remarked after marrying Marie-Louise that “he had married a womb”.[citation needed] Even after their separation, Napoleon insisted Josephine retain the title of empress. “It is my will that she retain the rank and title of empress, and especially that she never doubt my sentiments, and that she ever hold me as her best and dearest friend.”

The story of Napoleon's wives would not be complete 
without saying something about the “poor Womb” that 
he married for dynastic reasons, Marie-Louise of Austria. 

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Pic 6  Empress Marie-Louise

Wikipedia again:-
The end of the War of the Fifth Coalition resulted 
in the marriage of Napoleon and Marie Louise in 1810, 
which ushered in a brief period of peace and friendship 
between Austria and the French Empire. Marie Louise 
dutifully agreed to the marriage despite being raised 
to despise France. She was an obedient wife and was 
adored by Napoleon, who had been eager to marry a 
member of one of Europe's leading royal houses to cement 
his relatively young Empire. With Napoleon, she bore 
a son, styled the King of Rome at birth, later Duke of 
Reichstaedt, who briefly succeeded him as Napoleon II. 
As a princess of the royal family of Austria she didn't 
need anyone to cry for her. After Napoleon's abdication 
she returned to Austria, became Duchess of Parma 
and after his death married, morganatically, twice more,
and bore three more children to her second husband. 
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Steam and Stratagem has a sister.

February 6, 2014

The big news this time is that we have signed the contract for the sequel “Spies and Subterfuge”. Editing is early in the planning stage now but the novel could be released either early next year, or if Plan A works, it could be out this Fall. Which is good, because I have already had a couple of local purchasers asking when the sequel will appear.

It means I can use some info about the sequel now…as long as I don’t give away any spoilers. While Steam and Stratagem has the start of Lord Bond’s new spying mission to Antwerp, the sequel has a lot more spying and more characters involved. Napoleon’s spy-master Joseph Fouché, le Duc d’Outrante, is in several scenes, trying to terrorize some of the team to make them panic and lead him to everyone else.

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Fouché

He is an interesting character in history, too. He was first a revolutionary republican and became deputy of a revolutionary département in 1792. In 1793, he and a colleague crushed a royalist uprising in La Vendée with cruel thoroughness and he was soon given the position of Commissioner of the Republic in another department. He later put down another revolt and became known as the “Executioner of Lyons” for his sending about 2000 citizens of the city to their deaths by firing squad and by firing grapeshot from cannons at chained prisoners.

So, that gives you an idea of the man Lord Bond’s spies are up against. He first became Minister for Police in Paris in 1799 under the Directorate. When Napoleon returned from Egypt he switched sides and helped destroy the Directorate, for which Napoleon kept him on as chief of police. But on becoming First Consul in 1802 he decided Fouché was too powerful and had him removed.

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Fouchė 2

But Fouché was too good a police chief and spy-master to stay out of power for long. In 1804 when Napoleon became Emperor, Fouché was again made Minister of Police and later given the title of the Duc d’Outrante. I’ll skip more of the detail of his on and off again relationship with Napoleon, who never trusted him, and head to 1814 and 1815 when Napoleon was being advised by his marshals to abdicate as the armies of the 6th Coalition advanced on Paris. Fouché, as a senator, advised the French senate to make peace with the Royalists and send for Louis XVIII to return as King.

Anyway, to cut a long story short, when Napoleon abdicated a second time, after the loss of the Battle of Waterloo, Fouché became the head of the Provisional Government that the now deposed Napoleon had to apply to in order to ask for a passport from the British Government, that would allow him to find sanctuary in America. The Brits refused and one can imagine that Fouché shed no tears over that—a helpless Napoleon on the South Atlantic island of St Helena probably suited him very well. In my novel I have the scene where a British chargė d’affaires visits Fouchė about the request—want to guess which fictional character is the British official?

Louis XVIII appointed Fouché his Chief of Police when he became King of France, although the arrangement did not last long before he was dismissed and given the post of French ambassador to Saxony. In 1816 he was proscribed by the King’s government and exiled. He died in Trieste in 1820, but descendants of his son still live in Sweden.

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Magic Portal

I have lately been looking at Pinterest pages about reading….pinned by readers. It is inspirational for a writer to read some of the comments about books that attest to the idea that writing is a service to society even more than an art. And it’s not all about making the best-seller list. I want to connect with people who love books through my own writing…if only they can find me. If you know any dedicated readers you might send them to me.